While state and local agencies also regulate security, the key federal agencies responsible for liquid terminal facility security are:
Department of Homeland Security
Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency
Terminals that handle or store certain “chemicals of interest” (COI)—materials that if released or diverted could be converted into weapon or mixed with readily available materials to cause harm— are subject to the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards, if COIs at the facility are present above threshold levels. The riskiest facilities must fully implement 18 risk-based performance standards that are addressed in a facility security plan. DHS conducts inspections and audits at each CFATS-covered facility.
U.S. Coast Guard
The Coast Guard regulates the security and safety of ports and harbors as well as maritime facilities, like marine terminals. Coast Guard rules include limiting access to certain terminal facilities, stringent requirements for transferring oil or hazardous materials, and development of facility response and security plans.
Transportation Security Administration
The TSA oversees the safety of hazardous liquids pipelines that move products into and out of terminals. Because pipelines and terminals are part of the nation’s critical energy infrastructure, ILTA’s members play an important role in ensuring the safety of not only terminals but the pipelines that connect to them.
Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration
Liquid terminals that store food are subject to FDA regulations on food storage and handling. The FDA also has regulations in place to prevent “intentional adulteration,” or food tampering.
Department of Transportation
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PHMSA regulates the security of hazardous materials that move via various modes of transportation. That includes the proper labeling of vehicles while materials are in transportation. These regulations impact terminals because they are hubs for the various modes of transportation that move hazardous liquid commodities through the supply chain.