While state and local agencies also regulate the design and operation of liquid terminal facilities, some of the key federal agencies include:
Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA requires that tank and terminal operators follow about two dozen general, and industry-specific regulations on everything from walking and working surfaces, stairways, construction, personal protective equipment, egress and fire alarms. OSHA also conducts enforcement inspections and has some specific regulatory requirements when companies handle hazardous chemicals.
Key rules include:
- 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H. Hazardous materials
- 29 CFR 1910.106 Flammable liquids
- 29 CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM)
- 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
All terminals are subject to regulation by the EPA including its 10 regional offices. EPA regulates air and water quality around facilities under the Clean Air and Clean Water acts and the proper handling and disposal of waste. Some of these programs are delegated to and enforced at the state level. EPA administers other programs that affect terminal operations, including several related to spill prevention, mitigation and risk management if a terminal handles certain chemicals or hazardous substances.
Department of Transportation
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PHMSA regulates the design, construction and inspection of certain above-ground storage tanks, under 49 CFR Part 195. The agency also regulates the pipelines that often connect to facilities. In addition, PHMSA regulates the safe and secure transportation of hazardous materials via other modes of surface transportation, like rail and truck.
Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense. USACE regulates some aspects of terminal construction and maintenance, including dredging permits.